ACBL Bridge Beat #45: Pre-duplication

Some players have complained about pre-duplicated hands since they first started appearing at national tournaments. The methods were fairly primitive in 1955.

Pre-duplication at that time was done by hand by a non-bridge player. It was said that the pre-duper did not know the difference between the ace of spades and an elephant’s ear. The method employed was to deal a hand with an old deck of cards, record it, shuffle the deck several times with a riffle shuffle and then deal the next hand one card at a time.

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